(* Title: HOL/Number_Theory/Pocklington.thy Author: Amine Chaieb, Manuel Eberl *) section ‹Pocklington's Theorem for Primes› theory Pocklington imports Residues begin subsection ‹Lemmas about previously defined terms› lemma prime_nat_iff'': "prime (p::nat) ⟷ p ≠ 0 ∧ p ≠ 1 ∧ (∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < p ⟶ coprime p m)" apply (auto simp add: prime_nat_iff) apply (rule coprimeI) apply (auto dest: nat_dvd_not_less simp add: ac_simps) apply (metis One_nat_def dvd_1_iff_1 dvd_pos_nat gcd_nat.order_iff is_unit_gcd linorder_neqE_nat nat_dvd_not_less) done lemma finite_number_segment: "card { m. 0 < m ∧ m < n } = n - 1" proof - have "{ m. 0 < m ∧ m < n } = {1..<n}" by auto then show ?thesis by simp qed subsection ‹Some basic theorems about solving congruences› lemma cong_solve: fixes n :: nat assumes an: "coprime a n" shows "∃x. [a * x = b] (mod n)" proof (cases "a = 0") case True with an show ?thesis by (simp add: cong_def) next case False from bezout_add_strong_nat [OF this] obtain d x y where dxy: "d dvd a" "d dvd n" "a * x = n * y + d" by blast from dxy(1,2) have d1: "d = 1" using assms coprime_common_divisor [of a n d] by simp with dxy(3) have "a * x * b = (n * y + 1) * b" by simp then have "a * (x * b) = n * (y * b) + b" by (auto simp: algebra_simps) then have "a * (x * b) mod n = (n * (y * b) + b) mod n" by simp then have "a * (x * b) mod n = b mod n" by (simp add: mod_add_left_eq) then have "[a * (x * b) = b] (mod n)" by (simp only: cong_def) then show ?thesis by blast qed lemma cong_solve_unique: fixes n :: nat assumes an: "coprime a n" and nz: "n ≠ 0" shows "∃!x. x < n ∧ [a * x = b] (mod n)" proof - from cong_solve[OF an] obtain x where x: "[a * x = b] (mod n)" by blast let ?P = "λx. x < n ∧ [a * x = b] (mod n)" let ?x = "x mod n" from x have *: "[a * ?x = b] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_def mod_mult_right_eq[of a x n]) from mod_less_divisor[ of n x] nz * have Px: "?P ?x" by simp have "y = ?x" if Py: "y < n" "[a * y = b] (mod n)" for y proof - from Py(2) * have "[a * y = a * ?x] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_def) then have "[y = ?x] (mod n)" by (metis an cong_mult_lcancel_nat) with mod_less[OF Py(1)] mod_less_divisor[ of n x] nz show ?thesis by (simp add: cong_def) qed with Px show ?thesis by blast qed lemma cong_solve_unique_nontrivial: fixes p :: nat assumes p: "prime p" and pa: "coprime p a" and x0: "0 < x" and xp: "x < p" shows "∃!y. 0 < y ∧ y < p ∧ [x * y = a] (mod p)" proof - from pa have ap: "coprime a p" by (simp add: ac_simps) from x0 xp p have px: "coprime x p" by (auto simp add: prime_nat_iff'' ac_simps) obtain y where y: "y < p" "[x * y = a] (mod p)" "∀z. z < p ∧ [x * z = a] (mod p) ⟶ z = y" by (metis cong_solve_unique neq0_conv p prime_gt_0_nat px) have "y ≠ 0" proof assume "y = 0" with y(2) have "p dvd a" using cong_dvd_iff by auto with not_prime_1 p pa show False by (auto simp add: gcd_nat.order_iff) qed with y show ?thesis by blast qed lemma cong_unique_inverse_prime: fixes p :: nat assumes "prime p" and "0 < x" and "x < p" shows "∃!y. 0 < y ∧ y < p ∧ [x * y = 1] (mod p)" by (rule cong_solve_unique_nontrivial) (use assms in simp_all) lemma chinese_remainder_coprime_unique: fixes a :: nat assumes ab: "coprime a b" and az: "a ≠ 0" and bz: "b ≠ 0" and ma: "coprime m a" and nb: "coprime n b" shows "∃!x. coprime x (a * b) ∧ x < a * b ∧ [x = m] (mod a) ∧ [x = n] (mod b)" proof - let ?P = "λx. x < a * b ∧ [x = m] (mod a) ∧ [x = n] (mod b)" from binary_chinese_remainder_unique_nat[OF ab az bz] obtain x where x: "x < a * b" "[x = m] (mod a)" "[x = n] (mod b)" "∀y. ?P y ⟶ y = x" by blast from ma nb x have "coprime x a" "coprime x b" using cong_imp_coprime cong_sym by blast+ then have "coprime x (a*b)" by simp with x show ?thesis by blast qed subsection ‹Lucas's theorem› lemma lucas_coprime_lemma: fixes n :: nat assumes m: "m ≠ 0" and am: "[a^m = 1] (mod n)" shows "coprime a n" proof - consider "n = 1" | "n = 0" | "n > 1" by arith then show ?thesis proof cases case 1 then show ?thesis by simp next case 2 with am m show ?thesis by simp next case 3 from m obtain m' where m': "m = Suc m'" by (cases m) blast+ have "d = 1" if d: "d dvd a" "d dvd n" for d proof - from am mod_less[OF ‹n > 1›] have am1: "a^m mod n = 1" by (simp add: cong_def) from dvd_mult2[OF d(1), of "a^m'"] have dam: "d dvd a^m" by (simp add: m') from dvd_mod_iff[OF d(2), of "a^m"] dam am1 show ?thesis by simp qed then show ?thesis by (auto intro: coprimeI) qed qed lemma lucas_weak: fixes n :: nat assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and an: "[a ^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and nm: "∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < n - 1 ⟶ ¬ [a ^ m = 1] (mod n)" shows "prime n" proof (rule totient_imp_prime) show "totient n = n - 1" proof (rule ccontr) have "[a ^ totient n = 1] (mod n)" by (rule euler_theorem, rule lucas_coprime_lemma [of "n - 1"]) (use n an in auto) moreover assume "totient n ≠ n - 1" then have "totient n > 0" "totient n < n - 1" using ‹n ≥ 2› and totient_less[of n] by simp_all ultimately show False using nm by auto qed qed (use n in auto) lemma nat_exists_least_iff: "(∃(n::nat). P n) ⟷ (∃n. P n ∧ (∀m < n. ¬ P m))" by (metis ex_least_nat_le not_less0) lemma nat_exists_least_iff': "(∃(n::nat). P n) ⟷ P (Least P) ∧ (∀m < (Least P). ¬ P m)" (is "?lhs ⟷ ?rhs") proof show ?lhs if ?rhs using that by blast show ?rhs if ?lhs proof - from ‹?lhs› obtain n where n: "P n" by blast let ?x = "Least P" have "¬ P m" if "m < ?x" for m by (rule not_less_Least[OF that]) with LeastI_ex[OF ‹?lhs›] show ?thesis by blast qed qed theorem lucas: assumes n2: "n ≥ 2" and an1: "[a^(n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and pn: "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd n - 1 ⟶ [a^((n - 1) div p) ≠ 1] (mod n)" shows "prime n" proof- from n2 have n01: "n ≠ 0" "n ≠ 1" "n - 1 ≠ 0" by arith+ from mod_less_divisor[of n 1] n01 have onen: "1 mod n = 1" by simp from lucas_coprime_lemma[OF n01(3) an1] cong_imp_coprime an1 have an: "coprime a n" "coprime (a ^ (n - 1)) n" using ‹n ≥ 2› by simp_all have False if H0: "∃m. 0 < m ∧ m < n - 1 ∧ [a ^ m = 1] (mod n)" (is "∃m. ?P m") proof - from H0[unfolded nat_exists_least_iff[of ?P]] obtain m where m: "0 < m" "m < n - 1" "[a ^ m = 1] (mod n)" "∀k <m. ¬?P k" by blast have False if nm1: "(n - 1) mod m > 0" proof - from mod_less_divisor[OF m(1)] have th0:"(n - 1) mod m < m" by blast let ?y = "a^ ((n - 1) div m * m)" note mdeq = div_mult_mod_eq[of "(n - 1)" m] have yn: "coprime ?y n" using an(1) by (cases "(n - Suc 0) div m * m = 0") auto have "?y mod n = (a^m)^((n - 1) div m) mod n" by (simp add: algebra_simps power_mult) also have "… = (a^m mod n)^((n - 1) div m) mod n" using power_mod[of "a^m" n "(n - 1) div m"] by simp also have "… = 1" using m(3)[unfolded cong_def onen] onen by (metis power_one) finally have *: "?y mod n = 1" . have **: "[?y * a ^ ((n - 1) mod m) = ?y* 1] (mod n)" using an1[unfolded cong_def onen] onen div_mult_mod_eq[of "(n - 1)" m, symmetric] by (simp add:power_add[symmetric] cong_def * del: One_nat_def) have "[a ^ ((n - 1) mod m) = 1] (mod n)" by (metis cong_mult_rcancel_nat mult.commute ** yn) with m(4)[rule_format, OF th0] nm1 less_trans[OF mod_less_divisor[OF m(1), of "n - 1"] m(2)] show ?thesis by blast qed then have "(n - 1) mod m = 0" by auto then have mn: "m dvd n - 1" by presburger then obtain r where r: "n - 1 = m * r" unfolding dvd_def by blast from n01 r m(2) have r01: "r ≠ 0" "r ≠ 1" by auto obtain p where p: "prime p" "p dvd r" by (metis prime_factor_nat r01(2)) then have th: "prime p ∧ p dvd n - 1" unfolding r by (auto intro: dvd_mult) from r have "(a ^ ((n - 1) div p)) mod n = (a^(m*r div p)) mod n" by (simp add: power_mult) also have "… = (a^(m*(r div p))) mod n" using div_mult1_eq[of m r p] p(2)[unfolded dvd_eq_mod_eq_0] by simp also have "… = ((a^m)^(r div p)) mod n" by (simp add: power_mult) also have "… = ((a^m mod n)^(r div p)) mod n" using power_mod .. also from m(3) onen have "… = 1" by (simp add: cong_def) finally have "[(a ^ ((n - 1) div p))= 1] (mod n)" using onen by (simp add: cong_def) with pn th show ?thesis by blast qed then have "∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < n - 1 ⟶ ¬ [a ^ m = 1] (mod n)" by blast then show ?thesis by (rule lucas_weak[OF n2 an1]) qed subsection ‹Definition of the order of a number mod ‹n›› definition "ord n a = (if coprime n a then Least (λd. d > 0 ∧ [a ^d = 1] (mod n)) else 0)" text ‹This has the expected properties.› lemma coprime_ord: fixes n::nat assumes "coprime n a" shows "ord n a > 0 ∧ [a ^(ord n a) = 1] (mod n) ∧ (∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < ord n a ⟶ [a^ m ≠ 1] (mod n))" proof- let ?P = "λd. 0 < d ∧ [a ^ d = 1] (mod n)" from bigger_prime[of a] obtain p where p: "prime p" "a < p" by blast from assms have o: "ord n a = Least ?P" by (simp add: ord_def) have ex: "∃m>0. ?P m" proof (cases "n ≥ 2") case True moreover from assms have "coprime a n" by (simp add: ac_simps) then have "[a ^ totient n = 1] (mod n)" by (rule euler_theorem) ultimately show ?thesis by (auto intro: exI [where x = "totient n"]) next case False then have "n = 0 ∨ n = 1" by auto with assms show ?thesis by auto qed from nat_exists_least_iff'[of ?P] ex assms show ?thesis unfolding o[symmetric] by auto qed text ‹With the special value ‹0› for non-coprime case, it's more convenient.› lemma ord_works: "[a ^ (ord n a) = 1] (mod n) ∧ (∀m. 0 < m ∧ m < ord n a ⟶ ¬ [a^ m = 1] (mod n))" for n :: nat by (cases "coprime n a") (use coprime_ord[of n a] in ‹auto simp add: ord_def cong_def›) lemma ord: "[a^(ord n a) = 1] (mod n)" for n :: nat using ord_works by blast lemma ord_minimal: "0 < m ⟹ m < ord n a ⟹ ¬ [a^m = 1] (mod n)" for n :: nat using ord_works by blast lemma ord_eq_0: "ord n a = 0 ⟷ ¬ coprime n a" for n :: nat by (cases "coprime n a") (simp add: coprime_ord, simp add: ord_def) lemma divides_rexp: "x dvd y ⟹ x dvd (y ^ Suc n)" for x y :: nat by (simp add: dvd_mult2[of x y]) lemma ord_divides:"[a ^ d = 1] (mod n) ⟷ ord n a dvd d" (is "?lhs ⟷ ?rhs") for n :: nat proof assume ?rhs then obtain k where "d = ord n a * k" unfolding dvd_def by blast then have "[a ^ d = (a ^ (ord n a) mod n)^k] (mod n)" by (simp add : cong_def power_mult power_mod) also have "[(a ^ (ord n a) mod n)^k = 1] (mod n)" using ord[of a n, unfolded cong_def] by (simp add: cong_def power_mod) finally show ?lhs . next assume ?lhs show ?rhs proof (cases "coprime n a") case prem: False then have o: "ord n a = 0" by (simp add: ord_def) show ?thesis proof (cases d) case 0 with o prem show ?thesis by (simp add: cong_def) next case (Suc d') then have d0: "d ≠ 0" by simp from prem obtain p where p: "p dvd n" "p dvd a" "p ≠ 1" by (auto elim: not_coprimeE) from ‹?lhs› obtain q1 q2 where q12: "a ^ d + n * q1 = 1 + n * q2" using prem d0 lucas_coprime_lemma by (auto elim: not_coprimeE simp add: ac_simps) then have "a ^ d + n * q1 - n * q2 = 1" by simp with dvd_diff_nat [OF dvd_add [OF divides_rexp]] dvd_mult2 Suc p have "p dvd 1" by metis with p(3) have False by simp then show ?thesis .. qed next case H: True let ?o = "ord n a" let ?q = "d div ord n a" let ?r = "d mod ord n a" have eqo: "[(a^?o)^?q = 1] (mod n)" using cong_pow ord_works by fastforce from H have onz: "?o ≠ 0" by (simp add: ord_eq_0) then have opos: "?o > 0" by simp from div_mult_mod_eq[of d "ord n a"] ‹?lhs› have "[a^(?o*?q + ?r) = 1] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_def mult.commute) then have "[(a^?o)^?q * (a^?r) = 1] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_def power_mult[symmetric] power_add[symmetric]) then have th: "[a^?r = 1] (mod n)" using eqo mod_mult_left_eq[of "(a^?o)^?q" "a^?r" n] by (simp add: cong_def del: One_nat_def) (metis mod_mult_left_eq nat_mult_1) show ?thesis proof (cases "?r = 0") case True then show ?thesis by (simp add: dvd_eq_mod_eq_0) next case False with mod_less_divisor[OF opos, of d] have r0o:"?r >0 ∧ ?r < ?o" by simp from conjunct2[OF ord_works[of a n], rule_format, OF r0o] th show ?thesis by blast qed qed qed lemma order_divides_totient: "ord n a dvd totient n" if "coprime n a" using that euler_theorem [of a n] by (simp add: ord_divides [symmetric] ac_simps) lemma order_divides_expdiff: fixes n::nat and a::nat assumes na: "coprime n a" shows "[a^d = a^e] (mod n) ⟷ [d = e] (mod (ord n a))" proof - have th: "[a^d = a^e] (mod n) ⟷ [d = e] (mod (ord n a))" if na: "coprime n a" and ed: "(e::nat) ≤ d" for n a d e :: nat proof - from na ed have "∃c. d = e + c" by presburger then obtain c where c: "d = e + c" .. from na have an: "coprime a n" by (simp add: ac_simps) then have aen: "coprime (a ^ e) n" by (cases "e > 0") simp_all from an have acn: "coprime (a ^ c) n" by (cases "c > 0") simp_all from c have "[a^d = a^e] (mod n) ⟷ [a^(e + c) = a^(e + 0)] (mod n)" by simp also have "… ⟷ [a^e* a^c = a^e *a^0] (mod n)" by (simp add: power_add) also have "… ⟷ [a ^ c = 1] (mod n)" using cong_mult_lcancel_nat [OF aen, of "a^c" "a^0"] by simp also have "… ⟷ ord n a dvd c" by (simp only: ord_divides) also have "… ⟷ [e + c = e + 0] (mod ord n a)" by (auto simp add: cong_altdef_nat) finally show ?thesis using c by simp qed consider "e ≤ d" | "d ≤ e" by arith then show ?thesis proof cases case 1 with na show ?thesis by (rule th) next case 2 from th[OF na this] show ?thesis by (metis cong_sym) qed qed lemma ord_not_coprime [simp]: "¬coprime n a ⟹ ord n a = 0" by (simp add: ord_def) lemma ord_1 [simp]: "ord 1 n = 1" proof - have "(LEAST k. k > 0) = (1 :: nat)" by (rule Least_equality) auto thus ?thesis by (simp add: ord_def) qed lemma ord_1_right [simp]: "ord (n::nat) 1 = 1" using ord_divides[of 1 1 n] by simp lemma ord_Suc_0_right [simp]: "ord (n::nat) (Suc 0) = 1" using ord_divides[of 1 1 n] by simp lemma ord_0_nat [simp]: "ord 0 (n :: nat) = (if n = 1 then 1 else 0)" proof - have "(LEAST k. k > 0) = (1 :: nat)" by (rule Least_equality) auto thus ?thesis by (auto simp: ord_def) qed lemma ord_0_right_nat [simp]: "ord (n :: nat) 0 = (if n = 1 then 1 else 0)" proof - have "(LEAST k. k > 0) = (1 :: nat)" by (rule Least_equality) auto thus ?thesis by (auto simp: ord_def) qed lemma ord_divides': "[a ^ d = Suc 0] (mod n) = (ord n a dvd d)" using ord_divides[of a d n] by simp lemma ord_Suc_0 [simp]: "ord (Suc 0) n = 1" using ord_1[where 'a = nat] by (simp del: ord_1) lemma ord_mod [simp]: "ord n (k mod n) = ord n k" by (cases "n = 0") (auto simp add: ord_def cong_def power_mod) lemma ord_gt_0_iff [simp]: "ord (n::nat) x > 0 ⟷ coprime n x" using ord_eq_0[of n x] by auto lemma ord_eq_Suc_0_iff: "ord n (x::nat) = Suc 0 ⟷ [x = 1] (mod n)" using ord_divides[of x 1 n] by (auto simp: ord_divides') lemma ord_cong: assumes "[k1 = k2] (mod n)" shows "ord n k1 = ord n k2" proof - have "ord n (k1 mod n) = ord n (k2 mod n)" by (simp only: assms[unfolded cong_def]) thus ?thesis by simp qed lemma ord_nat_code [code_unfold]: "ord n a = (if n = 0 then if a = 1 then 1 else 0 else if coprime n a then Min (Set.filter (λk. [a ^ k = 1] (mod n)) {0<..n}) else 0)" proof (cases "coprime n a ∧ n > 0") case True define A where "A = {k∈{0<..n}. [a ^ k = 1] (mod n)}" define k where "k = (LEAST k. k > 0 ∧ [a ^ k = 1] (mod n))" have totient: "totient n ∈ A" using euler_theorem[of a n] True by (auto simp: A_def coprime_commute intro!: Nat.gr0I totient_le) moreover have "finite A" by (auto simp: A_def) ultimately have *: "Min A ∈ A" and "∀y. y ∈ A ⟶ Min A ≤ y" by (auto intro: Min_in) have "k > 0 ∧ [a ^ k = 1] (mod n)" unfolding k_def by (rule LeastI[of _ "totient n"]) (use totient in ‹auto simp: A_def›) moreover have "k ≤ totient n" unfolding k_def by (intro Least_le) (use totient in ‹auto simp: A_def›) ultimately have "k ∈ A" using totient_le[of n] by (auto simp: A_def) hence "Min A ≤ k" by (intro Min_le) (auto simp: ‹finite A›) moreover from * have "k ≤ Min A" unfolding k_def by (intro Least_le) (auto simp: A_def) ultimately show ?thesis using True by (simp add: ord_def k_def A_def Set.filter_def) qed auto theorem ord_modulus_mult_coprime: fixes x :: nat assumes "coprime m n" shows "ord (m * n) x = lcm (ord m x) (ord n x)" proof (intro dvd_antisym) have "[x ^ lcm (ord m x) (ord n x) = 1] (mod (m * n))" using assms by (intro coprime_cong_mult_nat assms) (auto simp: ord_divides') thus "ord (m * n) x dvd lcm (ord m x) (ord n x)" by (simp add: ord_divides') next show "lcm (ord m x) (ord n x) dvd ord (m * n) x" proof (intro lcm_least) show "ord m x dvd ord (m * n) x" using cong_modulus_mult_nat[of "x ^ ord (m * n) x" 1 m n] assms by (simp add: ord_divides') show "ord n x dvd ord (m * n) x" using cong_modulus_mult_nat[of "x ^ ord (m * n) x" 1 n m] assms by (simp add: ord_divides' mult.commute) qed qed corollary ord_modulus_prod_coprime: assumes "finite A" "⋀i j. i ∈ A ⟹ j ∈ A ⟹ i ≠ j ⟹ coprime (f i) (f j)" shows "ord (∏i∈A. f i :: nat) x = (LCM i∈A. ord (f i) x)" using assms by (induction A rule: finite_induct) (simp, simp, subst ord_modulus_mult_coprime, auto intro!: prod_coprime_right) lemma ord_power_aux: fixes m x k a :: nat defines "l ≡ ord m a" shows "ord m (a ^ k) * gcd k l = l" proof (rule dvd_antisym) have "[a ^ lcm k l = 1] (mod m)" unfolding ord_divides by (simp add: l_def) also have "lcm k l = k * (l div gcd k l)" by (simp add: lcm_nat_def div_mult_swap) finally have "ord m (a ^ k) dvd l div gcd k l" unfolding ord_divides [symmetric] by (simp add: power_mult [symmetric]) thus "ord m (a ^ k) * gcd k l dvd l" by (cases "l = 0") (auto simp: dvd_div_iff_mult) have "[(a ^ k) ^ ord m (a ^ k) = 1] (mod m)" by (rule ord) also have "(a ^ k) ^ ord m (a ^ k) = a ^ (k * ord m (a ^ k))" by (simp add: power_mult) finally have "ord m a dvd k * ord m (a ^ k)" by (simp add: ord_divides') hence "l dvd gcd (k * ord m (a ^ k)) (l * ord m (a ^ k))" by (intro gcd_greatest dvd_triv_left) (auto simp: l_def ord_divides') also have "gcd (k * ord m (a ^ k)) (l * ord m (a ^ k)) = ord m (a ^ k) * gcd k l" by (subst gcd_mult_distrib_nat) (auto simp: mult_ac) finally show "l dvd ord m (a ^ k) * gcd k l" . qed theorem ord_power: "coprime m a ⟹ ord m (a ^ k :: nat) = ord m a div gcd k (ord m a)" using ord_power_aux[of m a k] by (metis div_mult_self_is_m gcd_pos_nat ord_eq_0) lemma inj_power_mod: assumes "coprime n (a :: nat)" shows "inj_on (λk. a ^ k mod n) {..<ord n a}" proof fix k l assume *: "k ∈ {..<ord n a}" "l ∈ {..<ord n a}" "a ^ k mod n = a ^ l mod n" have "k = l" if "k < l" "l < ord n a" "[a ^ k = a ^ l] (mod n)" for k l proof - have "l = k + (l - k)" using that by simp also have "a ^ … = a ^ k * a ^ (l - k)" by (simp add: power_add) also have "[… = a ^ l * a ^ (l - k)] (mod n)" using that by (intro cong_mult) auto finally have "[a ^ l * a ^ (l - k) = a ^ l * 1] (mod n)" by (simp add: cong_sym_eq) with assms have "[a ^ (l - k) = 1] (mod n)" by (subst (asm) cong_mult_lcancel_nat) (auto simp: coprime_commute) hence "ord n a dvd l - k" by (simp add: ord_divides') from dvd_imp_le[OF this] and ‹l < ord n a› have "l - k = 0" by (cases "l - k = 0") auto with ‹k < l› show "k = l" by simp qed from this[of k l] and this[of l k] and * show "k = l" by (cases k l rule: linorder_cases) (auto simp: cong_def) qed lemma ord_eq_2_iff: "ord n (x :: nat) = 2 ⟷ [x ≠ 1] (mod n) ∧ [x⇧^{2}= 1] (mod n)" proof assume x: "[x ≠ 1] (mod n) ∧ [x⇧^{2}= 1] (mod n)" hence "coprime n x" by (metis coprime_commute lucas_coprime_lemma zero_neq_numeral) with x have "ord n x dvd 2" "ord n x ≠ 1" "ord n x > 0" by (auto simp: ord_divides' ord_eq_Suc_0_iff) thus "ord n x = 2" by (auto dest!: dvd_imp_le simp del: ord_gt_0_iff) qed (use ord_divides[of _ 2] ord_divides[of _ 1] in auto) lemma square_mod_8_eq_1_iff: "[x⇧^{2}= 1] (mod 8) ⟷ odd (x :: nat)" proof - have "[x⇧^{2}= 1] (mod 8) ⟷ ((x mod 8)⇧^{2}mod 8 = 1)" by (simp add: power_mod cong_def) also have "… ⟷ x mod 8 ∈ {1, 3, 5, 7}" proof assume x: "(x mod 8)⇧^{2}mod 8 = 1" have "x mod 8 ∈ {..<8}" by simp also have "{..<8} = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7::nat}" by (simp add: lessThan_nat_numeral lessThan_Suc insert_commute) finally have x_cases: "x mod 8 ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}" . from x have "x mod 8 ∉ {0, 2, 4, 6}" using x by (auto intro: Nat.gr0I) with x_cases show "x mod 8 ∈ {1, 3, 5, 7}" by simp qed auto also have "… ⟷ odd (x mod 8)" by (auto elim!: oddE) also have "… ⟷ odd x" by presburger finally show ?thesis . qed lemma ord_twopow_aux: assumes "k ≥ 3" and "odd (x :: nat)" shows "[x ^ (2 ^ (k - 2)) = 1] (mod (2 ^ k))" using assms(1) proof (induction k rule: dec_induct) case base from assms have "[x⇧^{2}= 1] (mod 8)" by (subst square_mod_8_eq_1_iff) auto thus ?case by simp next case (step k) define k' where "k' = k - 2" have k: "k = Suc (Suc k')" using ‹k ≥ 3› by (simp add: k'_def) from ‹k ≥ 3› have "2 * k ≥ Suc k" by presburger from ‹odd x› have "x > 0" by (intro Nat.gr0I) auto from step.IH have "2 ^ k dvd (x ^ (2 ^ (k - 2)) - 1)" by (rule cong_to_1_nat) then obtain t where "x ^ (2 ^ (k - 2)) - 1 = t * 2 ^ k" by auto hence "x ^ (2 ^ (k - 2)) = t * 2 ^ k + 1" by (metis ‹0 < x› add.commute add_diff_inverse_nat less_one neq0_conv power_eq_0_iff) hence "(x ^ (2 ^ (k - 2))) ^ 2 = (t * 2 ^ k + 1) ^ 2" by (rule arg_cong) hence "[(x ^ (2 ^ (k - 2))) ^ 2 = (t * 2 ^ k + 1) ^ 2] (mod (2 ^ Suc k))" by simp also have "(x ^ (2 ^ (k - 2))) ^ 2 = x ^ (2 ^ (k - 1))" by (simp_all add: power_even_eq[symmetric] power_mult k ) also have "(t * 2 ^ k + 1) ^ 2 = t⇧^{2}* 2 ^ (2 * k) + t * 2 ^ Suc k + 1" by (subst power2_eq_square) (auto simp: algebra_simps k power2_eq_square[of t] power_even_eq[symmetric] power_add [symmetric]) also have "[… = 0 + 0 + 1] (mod 2 ^ Suc k)" using ‹2 * k ≥ Suc k› by (intro cong_add) (auto simp: cong_0_iff intro: dvd_mult[OF le_imp_power_dvd] simp del: power_Suc) finally show ?case by simp qed lemma ord_twopow_3_5: assumes "k ≥ 3" "x mod 8 ∈ {3, 5 :: nat}" shows "ord (2 ^ k) x = 2 ^ (k - 2)" using assms(1) proof (induction k rule: less_induct) have "x mod 8 = 3 ∨ x mod 8 = 5" using assms by auto hence "odd x" by presburger case (less k) from ‹k ≥ 3› consider "k = 3" | "k = 4" | "k ≥ 5" by force thus ?case proof cases case 1 thus ?thesis using assms by (auto simp: ord_eq_2_iff cong_def simp flip: power_mod[of x]) next case 2 from assms have "x mod 8 = 3 ∨ x mod 8 = 5" by auto then have x': "x mod 16 = 3 ∨ x mod 16 = 5 ∨ x mod 16 = 11 ∨ x mod 16 = 13" using mod_double_nat [of x 8] by auto hence "[x ^ 4 = 1] (mod 16)" using assms by (auto simp: cong_def simp flip: power_mod[of x]) hence "ord 16 x dvd 2⇧^{2}" by (simp add: ord_divides') then obtain l where l: "ord 16 x = 2 ^ l" "l ≤ 2" by (subst (asm) divides_primepow_nat) auto have "[x ^ 2 ≠ 1] (mod 16)" using x' by (auto simp: cong_def simp flip: power_mod[of x]) hence "¬ord 16 x dvd 2" by (simp add: ord_divides') with l have "l = 2" using le_imp_power_dvd[of l 1 2] by (cases "l ≤ 1") auto with l show ?thesis by (simp add: ‹k = 4›) next case 3 define k' where "k' = k - 2" have k': "k' ≥ 2" and [simp]: "k = Suc (Suc k')" using 3 by (simp_all add: k'_def) have IH: "ord (2 ^ k') x = 2 ^ (k' - 2)" "ord (2 ^ Suc k') x = 2 ^ (k' - 1)" using less.IH[of k'] less.IH[of "Suc k'"] 3 by simp_all from IH have cong: "[x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) = 1] (mod (2 ^ k'))" by (simp_all add: ord_divides') have notcong: "[x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) ≠ 1] (mod (2 ^ Suc k'))" proof assume "[x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) = 1] (mod (2 ^ Suc k'))" hence "ord (2 ^ Suc k') x dvd 2 ^ (k' - 2)" by (simp add: ord_divides') also have "ord (2 ^ Suc k') x = 2 ^ (k' - 1)" using IH by simp finally have "k' - 1 ≤ k' - 2" by (rule power_dvd_imp_le) auto with ‹k' ≥ 2› show False by simp qed have "2 ^ k' + 1 < 2 ^ k' + (2 ^ k' :: nat)" using one_less_power[of "2::nat" k'] k' by (intro add_strict_left_mono) auto with cong notcong have cong': "x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod 2 ^ Suc k' = 1 + 2 ^ k'" using mod_double_nat [of ‹x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 2)› ‹2 ^ k'›] k' by (auto simp: cong_def) hence "x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod 2 ^ k = 1 + 2 ^ k' ∨ x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod 2 ^ k = 1 + 2 ^ k' + 2 ^ Suc k'" using mod_double_nat [of ‹x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 2)› ‹2 ^ Suc k'›] by auto hence eq: "[x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 1) = 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1)] (mod 2 ^ k)" proof assume *: "x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod (2 ^ k) = 1 + 2 ^ k'" have "[x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) = x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod 2 ^ k] (mod 2 ^ k)" by simp also have "[x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod (2 ^ k) = 1 + 2 ^ k'] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (subst *) auto finally have "[(x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 2)) ^ 2 = (1 + 2 ^ k') ^ 2] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (rule cong_pow) hence "[x ^ 2 ^ Suc (k' - 2) = (1 + 2 ^ k') ^ 2] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (simp add: power_mult [symmetric] power_Suc2 [symmetric] del: power_Suc) also have "Suc (k' - 2) = k' - 1" using k' by simp also have "(1 + 2 ^ k' :: nat)⇧^{2}= 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1) + 2 ^ (2 * k')" by (subst power2_eq_square) (simp add: algebra_simps flip: power_add) also have "(2 ^ k :: nat) dvd 2 ^ (2 * k')" using k' by (intro le_imp_power_dvd) auto hence "[1 + 2 ^ (k - 1) + 2 ^ (2 * k') = 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1) + (0 :: nat)] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (intro cong_add) (auto simp: cong_0_iff) finally show "[x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 1) = 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1)] (mod 2 ^ k)" by simp next assume *: "x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod 2 ^ k = 1 + 2 ^ k' + 2 ^ Suc k'" have "[x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) = x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod 2 ^ k] (mod 2 ^ k)" by simp also have "[x ^ (2 ^ (k' - 2)) mod (2 ^ k) = 1 + 3 * 2 ^ k'] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (subst *) auto finally have "[(x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 2)) ^ 2 = (1 + 3 * 2 ^ k') ^ 2] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (rule cong_pow) hence "[x ^ 2 ^ Suc (k' - 2) = (1 + 3 * 2 ^ k') ^ 2] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (simp add: power_mult [symmetric] power_Suc2 [symmetric] del: power_Suc) also have "Suc (k' - 2) = k' - 1" using k' by simp also have "(1 + 3 * 2 ^ k' :: nat)⇧^{2}= 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1) + 2 ^ k + 9 * 2 ^ (2 * k')" by (subst power2_eq_square) (simp add: algebra_simps flip: power_add) also have "(2 ^ k :: nat) dvd 9 * 2 ^ (2 * k')" using k' by (intro dvd_mult le_imp_power_dvd) auto hence "[1 + 2 ^ (k - 1) + 2 ^ k + 9 * 2 ^ (2 * k') = 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1) + 0 + (0 :: nat)] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (intro cong_add) (auto simp: cong_0_iff) finally show "[x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 1) = 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1)] (mod 2 ^ k)" by simp qed have notcong': "[x ^ 2 ^ (k - 3) ≠ 1] (mod 2 ^ k)" proof assume "[x ^ 2 ^ (k - 3) = 1] (mod 2 ^ k)" hence "[x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 1) - x ^ 2 ^ (k' - 1) = 1 + 2 ^ (k - 1) - 1] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (intro cong_diff_nat eq) auto hence "[2 ^ (k - 1) = (0 :: nat)] (mod 2 ^ k)" by (simp add: cong_sym_eq) hence "2 ^ k dvd 2 ^ (k - 1)" by (simp add: cong_0_iff) hence "k ≤ k - 1" by (rule power_dvd_imp_le) auto thus False by simp qed have "[x ^ 2 ^ (k - 2) = 1] (mod 2 ^ k)" using ord_twopow_aux[of k x] ‹odd x› ‹k ≥ 3› by simp hence "ord (2 ^ k) x dvd 2 ^ (k - 2)" by (simp add: ord_divides') then obtain l where l: "l ≤ k - 2" "ord (2 ^ k) x = 2 ^ l" using divides_primepow_nat[of 2 "ord (2 ^ k) x" "k - 2"] by auto from notcong' have "¬ord (2 ^ k) x dvd 2 ^ (k - 3)" by (simp add: ord_divides') with l have "l = k - 2" using le_imp_power_dvd[of l "k - 3" 2] by (cases "l ≤ k - 3") auto with l show ?thesis by simp qed qed lemma ord_4_3 [simp]: "ord 4 (3::nat) = 2" proof - have "[3 ^ 2 = (1 :: nat)] (mod 4)" by (simp add: cong_def) hence "ord 4 (3::nat) dvd 2" by (subst (asm) ord_divides) auto hence "ord 4 (3::nat) ≤ 2" by (intro dvd_imp_le) auto moreover have "ord 4 (3::nat) ≠ 1" by (auto simp: ord_eq_Suc_0_iff cong_def) moreover have "ord 4 (3::nat) ≠ 0" by (auto simp: gcd_non_0_nat coprime_iff_gcd_eq_1) ultimately show "ord 4 (3 :: nat) = 2" by linarith qed lemma elements_with_ord_1: "n > 0 ⟹ {x∈totatives n. ord n x = Suc 0} = {1}" by (auto simp: ord_eq_Suc_0_iff cong_def totatives_less) lemma residue_prime_has_primroot: fixes p :: nat assumes "prime p" shows "∃a∈totatives p. ord p a = p - 1" proof - from residue_prime_mult_group_has_gen[OF assms] obtain a where a: "a ∈ {1..p-1}" "{1..p-1} = {a ^ i mod p |i. i ∈ UNIV}" by blast from a have "coprime p a" using a assms by (intro prime_imp_coprime) (auto dest: dvd_imp_le) with a(1) have "a ∈ totatives p" by (auto simp: totatives_def coprime_commute) have "p - 1 = card {1..p-1}" by simp also have "{1..p-1} = {a ^ i mod p |i. i ∈ UNIV}" by fact also have "{a ^ i mod p |i. i ∈ UNIV} = (λi. a ^ i mod p) ` {..<ord p a}" proof (intro equalityI subsetI) fix x assume "x ∈ {a ^ i mod p |i. i ∈ UNIV}" then obtain i where [simp]: "x = a ^ i mod p" by auto have "[a ^ i = a ^ (i mod ord p a)] (mod p)" using ‹coprime p a› by (subst order_divides_expdiff) auto hence "∃j. a ^ i mod p = a ^ j mod p ∧ j < ord p a" using ‹coprime p a› by (intro exI[of _ "i mod ord p a"]) (auto simp: cong_def) thus "x ∈ (λi. a ^ i mod p) ` {..<ord p a}" by auto qed auto also have "card … = ord p a" using inj_power_mod[OF ‹coprime p a›] by (subst card_image) auto finally show ?thesis using ‹a ∈ totatives p› by auto qed subsection ‹Another trivial primality characterization› lemma prime_prime_factor: "prime n ⟷ n ≠ 1 ∧ (∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd n ⟶ p = n)" (is "?lhs ⟷ ?rhs") for n :: nat proof (cases "n = 0 ∨ n = 1") case True then show ?thesis by (metis bigger_prime dvd_0_right not_prime_1 not_prime_0) next case False show ?thesis proof assume "prime n" then show ?rhs by (metis not_prime_1 prime_nat_iff) next assume ?rhs with False show "prime n" by (auto simp: prime_nat_iff) (metis One_nat_def prime_factor_nat prime_nat_iff) qed qed lemma prime_divisor_sqrt: "prime n ⟷ n ≠ 1 ∧ (∀d. d dvd n ∧ d⇧^{2}≤ n ⟶ d = 1)" for n :: nat proof - consider "n = 0" | "n = 1" | "n ≠ 0" "n ≠ 1" by blast then show ?thesis proof cases case 1 then show ?thesis by simp next case 2 then show ?thesis by simp next case n: 3 then have np: "n > 1" by arith { fix d assume d: "d dvd n" "d⇧^{2}≤ n" and H: "∀m. m dvd n ⟶ m = 1 ∨ m = n" from H d have d1n: "d = 1 ∨ d = n" by blast then have "d = 1" proof assume dn: "d = n" from n have "n⇧^{2}> n * 1" by (simp add: power2_eq_square) with dn d(2) show ?thesis by simp qed } moreover { fix d assume d: "d dvd n" and H: "∀d'. d' dvd n ∧ d'⇧^{2}≤ n ⟶ d' = 1" from d n have "d ≠ 0" by (metis dvd_0_left_iff) then have dp: "d > 0" by simp from d[unfolded dvd_def] obtain e where e: "n= d*e" by blast from n dp e have ep:"e > 0" by simp from dp ep have "d⇧^{2}≤ n ∨ e⇧^{2}≤ n" by (auto simp add: e power2_eq_square mult_le_cancel_left) then have "d = 1 ∨ d = n" proof assume "d⇧^{2}≤ n" with H[rule_format, of d] d have "d = 1" by blast then show ?thesis .. next assume h: "e⇧^{2}≤ n" from e have "e dvd n" by (simp add: dvd_def mult.commute) with H[rule_format, of e] h have "e = 1" by simp with e have "d = n" by simp then show ?thesis .. qed } ultimately show ?thesis unfolding prime_nat_iff using np n(2) by blast qed qed lemma prime_prime_factor_sqrt: "prime (n::nat) ⟷ n ≠ 0 ∧ n ≠ 1 ∧ (∄p. prime p ∧ p dvd n ∧ p⇧^{2}≤ n)" (is "?lhs ⟷?rhs") proof - consider "n = 0" | "n = 1" | "n ≠ 0" "n ≠ 1" by blast then show ?thesis proof cases case 1 then show ?thesis by (metis not_prime_0) next case 2 then show ?thesis by (metis not_prime_1) next case n: 3 show ?thesis proof assume ?lhs from this[unfolded prime_divisor_sqrt] n show ?rhs by (metis prime_prime_factor) next assume ?rhs { fix d assume d: "d dvd n" "d⇧^{2}≤ n" "d ≠ 1" then obtain p where p: "prime p" "p dvd d" by (metis prime_factor_nat) from d(1) n have dp: "d > 0" by (metis dvd_0_left neq0_conv) from mult_mono[OF dvd_imp_le[OF p(2) dp] dvd_imp_le[OF p(2) dp]] d(2) have "p⇧^{2}≤ n" unfolding power2_eq_square by arith with ‹?rhs› n p(1) dvd_trans[OF p(2) d(1)] have False by blast } with n prime_divisor_sqrt show ?lhs by auto qed qed qed subsection ‹Pocklington theorem› lemma pocklington_lemma: fixes p :: nat assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and nqr: "n - 1 = q * r" and an: "[a^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and aq: "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd q ⟶ coprime (a ^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1) n" and pp: "prime p" and pn: "p dvd n" shows "[p = 1] (mod q)" proof - have p01: "p ≠ 0" "p ≠ 1" using pp by (auto intro: prime_gt_0_nat) obtain k where k: "a ^ (q * r) - 1 = n * k" by (metis an cong_to_1_nat dvd_def nqr) from pn[unfolded dvd_def] obtain l where l: "n = p * l" by blast have a0: "a ≠ 0" proof assume "a = 0" with n have "a^ (n - 1) = 0" by (simp add: power_0_left) with n an mod_less[of 1 n] show False by (simp add: power_0_left cong_def) qed with n nqr have aqr0: "a ^ (q * r) ≠ 0" by simp then have "(a ^ (q * r) - 1) + 1 = a ^ (q * r)" by simp with k l have "a ^ (q * r) = p * l * k + 1" by simp then have "a ^ (r * q) + p * 0 = 1 + p * (l * k)" by (simp add: ac_simps) then have odq: "ord p (a^r) dvd q" unfolding ord_divides[symmetric] power_mult[symmetric] by (metis an cong_dvd_modulus_nat mult.commute nqr pn) from odq[unfolded dvd_def] obtain d where d: "q = ord p (a^r) * d" by blast have d1: "d = 1" proof (rule ccontr) assume d1: "d ≠ 1" obtain P where P: "prime P" "P dvd d" by (metis d1 prime_factor_nat) from d dvd_mult[OF P(2), of "ord p (a^r)"] have Pq: "P dvd q" by simp from aq P(1) Pq have caP:"coprime (a^ ((n - 1) div P) - 1) n" by blast from Pq obtain s where s: "q = P*s" unfolding dvd_def by blast from P(1) have P0: "P ≠ 0" by (metis not_prime_0) from P(2) obtain t where t: "d = P*t" unfolding dvd_def by blast from d s t P0 have s': "ord p (a^r) * t = s" by (metis mult.commute mult_cancel1 mult.assoc) have "ord p (a^r) * t*r = r * ord p (a^r) * t" by (metis mult.assoc mult.commute) then have exps: "a^(ord p (a^r) * t*r) = ((a ^ r) ^ ord p (a^r)) ^ t" by (simp only: power_mult) then have "[((a ^ r) ^ ord p (a^r)) ^ t= 1] (mod p)" by (metis cong_pow ord power_one) then have pd0: "p dvd a^(ord p (a^r) * t*r) - 1" by (metis cong_to_1_nat exps) from nqr s s' have "(n - 1) div P = ord p (a^r) * t*r" using P0 by simp with caP have "coprime (a ^ (ord p (a ^ r) * t * r) - 1) n" by simp with p01 pn pd0 coprime_common_divisor [of _ n p] show False by auto qed with d have o: "ord p (a^r) = q" by simp from pp totient_prime [of p] have totient_eq: "totient p = p - 1" by simp { fix d assume d: "d dvd p" "d dvd a" "d ≠ 1" from pp[unfolded prime_nat_iff] d have dp: "d = p" by blast from n have "n ≠ 0" by simp then have False using d dp pn an by auto (metis One_nat_def Suc_lessI ‹1 < p ∧ (∀m. m dvd p ⟶ m = 1 ∨ m = p)› ‹a ^ (q * r) = p * l * k + 1› add_diff_cancel_left' dvd_diff_nat dvd_power dvd_triv_left gcd_nat.trans nat_dvd_not_less nqr zero_less_diff zero_less_one) } then have cpa: "coprime p a" by (auto intro: coprimeI) then have arp: "coprime (a ^ r) p" by (cases "r > 0") (simp_all add: ac_simps) from euler_theorem [OF arp, simplified ord_divides] o totient_eq have "q dvd (p - 1)" by simp then obtain d where d:"p - 1 = q * d" unfolding dvd_def by blast have "p ≠ 0" by (metis p01(1)) with d have "p + q * 0 = 1 + q * d" by simp then show ?thesis by (metis cong_iff_lin_nat mult.commute) qed theorem pocklington: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and nqr: "n - 1 = q * r" and sqr: "n ≤ q⇧^{2}" and an: "[a^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and aq: "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd q ⟶ coprime (a^ ((n - 1) div p) - 1) n" shows "prime n" unfolding prime_prime_factor_sqrt[of n] proof - let ?ths = "n ≠ 0 ∧ n ≠ 1 ∧ (∄p. prime p ∧ p dvd n ∧ p⇧^{2}≤ n)" from n have n01: "n ≠ 0" "n ≠ 1" by arith+ { fix p assume p: "prime p" "p dvd n" "p⇧^{2}≤ n" from p(3) sqr have "p^(Suc 1) ≤ q^(Suc 1)" by (simp add: power2_eq_square) then have pq: "p ≤ q" by (metis le0 power_le_imp_le_base) from pocklington_lemma[OF n nqr an aq p(1,2)] have *: "q dvd p - 1" by (metis cong_to_1_nat) have "p - 1 ≠ 0" using prime_ge_2_nat [OF p(1)] by arith with pq * have False by (simp add: nat_dvd_not_less) } with n01 show ?ths by blast qed text ‹Variant for application, to separate the exponentiation.› lemma pocklington_alt: assumes n: "n ≥ 2" and nqr: "n - 1 = q * r" and sqr: "n ≤ q⇧^{2}" and an: "[a^ (n - 1) = 1] (mod n)" and aq: "∀p. prime p ∧ p dvd q ⟶ (∃b. [a^((n - 1) div p) = b] (mod n) ∧ coprime (b - 1) n)" shows "prime n" proof - { fix p assume p: "prime p" "p dvd q" from aq[rule_format] p obtain b where b: "[a^((n - 1) div p) = b] (mod n)" "coprime (b - 1) n" by blast have a0: "a ≠ 0" proof assume a0: "a = 0" from n an have "[0 = 1] (mod n)" unfolding a0 power_0_left by auto then show False using n by (simp add: cong_def dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]) qed then have a1: "a ≥ 1" by arith from one_le_power[OF a1] have ath: "1 ≤ a ^ ((n - 1) div p)" . have b0: "b ≠ 0" proof assume b0: "b = 0" from p(2) nqr have "(n - 1) mod p = 0" by (metis mod_0 mod_mod_cancel mod_mult_self1_is_0) with div_mult_mod_eq[of "n - 1" p] have "(n - 1) div p * p= n - 1" by auto then have eq: "(a^((n - 1) div p))^p = a^(n - 1)" by (simp only: power_mult[symmetric]) have "p - 1