We formalize in Isabelle/HOL the abtract syntax and a synchronous step semantics for the specification language Statecharts. The formalization is based on Hierarchical Automata which allow a structural decomposition of Statecharts into Sequential Automata. To support the composition of Statecharts, we introduce calculating operators to construct a Hierarchical Automaton in a stepwise manner. Furthermore, we present a complete semantics of Statecharts including a theory of data spaces, which enables the modelling of racing effects. We also adapt CTL for Statecharts to build a bridge for future combinations with model checking. However the main motivation of this work is to provide a sound and complete basis for reasoning on Statecharts. As a central meta theorem we prove that the well-formedness of a Statechart is preserved by the semantics.